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Quellmalz's framework of thinking skillsEdit

In order to develop instruction that is congruent with the learning objectives that have been identified, the instructional designer needs to know what type of task is being learned.

Quellmalz's Taxonomy

·         recall

·         analysis

·         comparison

·         inference

·         evaluation

                                                                    

Edys Quellmalz is an educational psychologist who produced an integrated thinking skills frame work to help teachers and learners understand the strategies and processes used in problem- solving.

Cognition literally means “to know”.  Knowledge can be thought of as memories formed from the manipulation and assimilation of raw input , perceived via our senses of sight, hearing, taste, touch and smell

In science, cognition is a group of mental processes that includes attention, memory, producing and understanding language, learning, reasoning, problem solving, and decision making. Various disciplines, such as psychology, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science all study cognition

Metacognition is defined as "cognition about cognition", or "knowing about knowing.” It can take many forms; it includes knowledge about when and how to use particular strategies for learning or for problem solving

Higher-order thinking:    The idea is that some types of learning require more cognitive processing than others, but also have more generalized benefits. Higher order thinking involves the learning of complex judgmental skills such as critical thinking and problem solving. Higher order thinking is more difficult to learn or teach but also more valuable because such skills are more likely to be usable in novel situations (i.e., situations other than those in which the skill was learned).



Here is the taxonomy. First we encounter recall, reall is from lower-order category because it is a means of gaining access to existing knowledge, while higher order thinking is about restricting it.

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Category

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Recall

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Analysis

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Comparison

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Inference

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Evaluation

Description

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Remembering or recognizing

key facts, definitions, concepts,

etc.; repeating verbatim or

paraphrasing information that

has already been provided to

the student

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Understanding relationships

between the whole and its

component parts and between

cause and effect; sorting and

categorizing; understanding how

things work and how the parts of

something fit together;

understanding causal

relationships; getting information

from charts, graphs, diagrams,

and maps. Analysis is more than

rote repetition; instead it involves

reflectively structuring knowledge

in new ways.

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Explaining how things are similar

and how they are different.

Comparisons may be either

simple or complex. Simple

comparisons are based on a

small number of very obvious

attributes. Complex comparisons

require an examination of a more

extensive set of attributes of two

or more things. Comparisons

start with the whole/part

relationships in the analysis

category and carry them a step

further.

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Reasoning inductively or

deductively. In deductive tasks,

students reason from

generalizations to specific

instances and are asked to

recognize or explain the

evidence. In inductive tasks,

students are given the evidence

or details and are required to

relate and integrate the

information to come up with the

generalization

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Expressing and defending an

opinion. Evaluation tasks

require students to judge

quality, credibility, worth or

practicality using established

criteria and explain how the

criteria are met or not met.

Sample Trigger

Words

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define

list

label

name

identify

repeat

who

what

when

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analyze

break down

relationship

how it works

how it's used

give an example

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compare

contrast

distinguish

alike

different

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hypothesize

synthesize

use evidence

apply a rule

generalize

create

what if

infer

predict

conclude

apply

solve

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judge

evaluate

best solution

justify

defend

critique

defend

Sample Questions

and Tasks

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Define the word Ahaiku.

List the countries in Central

America.

In what year did the Civil War

begin?

Who wrote Little Women?

How much is (–1)5?

What is the capital of Illinois?

With what kind of music is Scott

Joplin associated?

What is software?

Name the basic food groups

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Sort these musical instruments

by family, for example, strings,

woodwinds, etc.

In what sequence did the events

take place?

How does a solar panel work?

How does the poet create a

mood of sadness?

Use the bar graph to determine

which three flavors of ice cream

are the most popular.

What process was used to create

this sculpture?

Classify these angles as acute,

right, or obtuse

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In what ways are walruses and

seals alike? In what ways do they

differ?

Compare the topography of the

eastern part of the U.S. with that

of the west.

Compare your life with that of a

young native American living

near the Plymouth colony 300

years ago.

Compare the techniques of

persuasion used in these two

political commercials.

How is the tango like the waltz?

How do they differ?

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What would happen if everybody

stopped watching television?

Predict what will be the result if

you combine vinegar and baking

soda.

What rule applies in this

situation?

What is the main idea of the

story?

Based on your research, what

can you conclude about the role

of lobbyists in shaping

legislation?

Predict how the story will end.

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Is the experiment designed so

that Paul will be able to tell

whether playing music

influences plant growth? Why?

What is the best solution to the

problem of getting people to

recycle? Why?

Do you believe the claims

made in the ad? Why or why

not?

Was our involvement in Viet

Nam worth the costs? Why?

Should the death penalty be

abolished? Why?

Corresponding

Bloom

Categories

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Knowledge

Comprehension

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Analysis

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Analysis

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Application

Synthesis

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Synthesis

Evaluation

 

Quellmatz’s higher-order thinking strategies and processes

         Strategies

         Students engage in purposeful, extended lines of thought where they:

     identify the task (or type of problem)

         define and clarify essential elements and terms

         gather, judge and connect relevant information

         evaluate the adequacy of information and procedures for drawing

         conclusions and/or solving problems.

         In addition, students will become self-conscious about their thinking       and develop their self-monitoring problem-solving strategies.

         Processes

               Cognitive                                                   Metacognitive

                Analysis                                                         planning

                Comparison                                                  monitoring

                inference/interpretation                            reviewing/revising

                evaluation

 

Evaluation

         framework includes both cognition and metacognition and the categories are

         applicable to both convergent and divergent thinking (although the

         examples provided suggest that she is more interested in the former).

         Quellmalz helpfully emphasises a ‘plan-monitor-review’ cycle which

         includQuellmalz’s es problem finding, but does not address affective, conative and

         social aspects of thinking. Dealing only with thinking skills, she does not

         refer to the dispositions which support critical thinking.

         The definitions used by Quellmalz, while clear, do not always accord

         with common usage or with those used in other taxonomies. This

         problem is most acute with the very broad ‘analysis’ category. Whereas

         for Bloom and for Anderson, sorting and classifying as well as translating

         from one form of representation to another are indicators of

         understanding, for Quellmalz they fall under ‘analysis’. ‘Comparison’

         overlaps with every other category, so it is doubtful whether it should

         be treated separately. For Quellmalz ‘inference/ interpretation’

         extends beyond deductive and inductive reasoning and is an umbrella

         term which also covers ‘apply a rule’, ‘synthesise’ and ‘create’. It is not

         known to what extent teachers who use the framework are able to

         consistently classify questions and tasks.

         Quellmalz believes that learners construct meaning in the context of

         project work where they are asked to solve problems in different

         curriculum areas

         Her Frameworks for Thinking

         framework has the appeal of simplicity and highlights for teachers

         the importance of modelling and teaching metacognitive skills.

 

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